Research About Using the Milliliter as a Standard Unit for Liquid Medication (HLOL #126)

Yin_Dreyer_IMG_4472Benard Dreyer, MD, is Professor of Pediatrics, Director of the Division of Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, Director of Pediatrics at Bellevue Hospital, and a pediatric hospitalist at NYU Langone Medical Center. He co-chaired the American Academy of Pediatrics “Project Advisory Committee on Health Literacy,” co-edited the book Plain Language Pediatrics, and serves on the Institute of Medicine’s Health Literacy Roundtable.

Shonna Yin, MD, MSc, is a general pediatrician and Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Population Health at the NYU School of Medicine, Bellevue Hospital Center. She is an NIH-funded researcher focused on the development and evaluation of low literacy strategies to improve parent understanding of health information, including medication instructions.

In this podcast, Dr. Dreyer and Dr. Yin talk with Helen Osborne about:

  • Common dosing errors parents make with liquid medication
  • Research about using the milliliter as a standard dosing unit
  • Ways professionals and parents can help improve medication safety

More Ways to Learn:

Talking with Children about Troublesome Family Issues (HLOL #125)

Picture of DebbieDeborah Wachenheim has been working for many years in health care advocacy. This work became more personal after her sister’s suicide in 2013. Deb now speaks out for more education and awareness about mental health care issues in general and postpartum mood disorders in particular.

In this podcast, Helen Osborne talks with Deb Wachenheim about:

  • Postpartum mood disorder and its role in Deb’s sister’s suicide.
  • Issues to consider when talking with children about troublesome, complex family issues.
  • Communication tips such as being open and honest, addressing questions that children ask, and being prepared for information that children find on the Internet.

More Ways to Learn:

Read the written transcript.

Health Literacy Screening Tools (HLOL #124)

IMG_2662Barry D Weiss, MD is a tenured professor in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Arizona College of Medicine. He also is an affiliate professor of public health in the College of Health Sciences at the University of Alaska Anchorage. Dr. Weiss has been involved in health literacy and patient-physician communication for much of his professional career. Among his many accomplishments, he has written more than 150 journal articles, authored several books, advised numerous committees and organizations about health literacy, and developed the health literacy screening tool, the Newest Vital Sign.

In this podcast, Dr. Weiss talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • Several well-known health literacy screening tools including the REALM (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine), TOFHLA (Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults), Single Item Health Literacy Screen, and NVS (the Newest Vital Sign).
  • Reasons to use, and more importantly, not to use health literacy screening tools in routine clinical settings.
  • Recommendations about communicating effectively with everyone.

More ways to learn:

Read this podcast’s written transcript.

Health Literacy & the Newly Insured (HLOL #123)

DrDonRubin headshot 2010 compressed documents 269kbDr. Don Rubin is Emeritus Professor of Speech Communication, of Language & Literacy Education, and of Linguistics, at the University of Georgia. Among his many projects and responsibilities, Don chairs the Georgia Alliance for Health Literacy. He also works closely with community-based organizations that offer Navigator services—designed to assist consumers seeking health insurance through Affordable Care Act insurance exchanges.

In this podcast, Dr. Don Rubin talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • Why health insurance is difficult for many Americans to understand.
  • How health insurance Navigators are helping. And why Dr. Rubin considers them to be Health Literacy Heroes.
  • Examples of strategies that Navigators are using to clearly explain complex health insurance concepts.

More Ways to Learn:

Read this podcast’s written transcript.

Disruptive Innovation: The Next Generation of Health Literacy Products and Services (HLOL #122)

Bio PicPamela Kelly, MBA, MJ is Director of Partnerships & Initiatives at Health Literacy Missouri (HLM). Since joining HLM in 2012, she has been reinventing what it means to be a health communications leader in the 21st century marketplace. Pam leads HLM’s statewide business development efforts and has succeeded in strengthening strategic partnerships with clients across the public and private sectors. She indeed has had a significant, measurable impact on health in Missouri.

In this podcast, Pamela Kelly talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • Why it’s time for health literacy to move from an educational to a business model.
  • Disruptive innovation. Reaching audiences in new and different ways.
  • Tips and lessons learned for health literacy advocates at all levels of experience, savvy, and spheres of influence.

More Ways to Learn:

Read this podcast’s written transcript.

Learning and Teaching about Health & Insurance (HLOL #121)

BonnieBraunheadshotBonnie Braun, Ph.D., served as the first Director and Endowed Chair of the Horowitz Center for Health Literacy at the University of Maryland’s School of Public Health. Bonnie Braun is a lifelong adult educator. Her many accomplishments include authoring nearly 100 peer-reviewed articles, founding and chairing Health Literacy Maryland, and leading the creation of the award-winning consumer curriculum, Smart Choice Health Insurance.

In this podcast, Helen Osborne talks with Bonnie Braun about:

  • Teachable moments, when learners have a need or problem to solve.
  • Building a teaching framework based on well-established theories of adult learning, education, and psychology.
  • Who, why, what, and how. Essential questions to answer when preparing to teach about health or health insurance or other topics.

More Ways to Learn:

To read a written transcript, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=12071

Patients Unlike Others You’ve Treated Before (HLOL #120)

Becky-1546-5x7_ppBecky Curran was born an achondroplastic dwarf. She is passionate about finding a way to change how people with physical differences, including little people, are perceived in the media. Becky is committed to helping everyone accept the differences in others.

In this podcast, Helen Osborne talks with Becky Curran about:

  • Why health communication can be difficult when providers treat patients with rare disease and conditions.
  • A patient’s perspective about ways providers can build trust and communicate effectively with everyone.
  • How to portray the diversity of your audience in print and web materials.

More Ways to Learn:

To read a written transcript, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=12066

Before You Teach Find Out What Learners Know, Feel, and Believe (HLOL #119)

Susan ReidSusan Reid is the Consulting Manager at Workbase, a not for profit organization in New Zealand that specializes in workforce and health literacy issues. Susan and her colleagues are currently working with New Zealand’s Ministry of Health and healthcare organizations to identify the impact of health literacy on their systems, workforce, and patients and families.

In this podcast, Susan Reid talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • What to know about learners before deciding how much to teach.
  • How reading theory helps make health teaching more effective.
  • Examples of ways to learn about your learners.

More Ways to Learn:

To read a written transcript, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=12050

Communicating with Compassion (HLOL #118)

Dr.Beth Lown WebSize19Beth Lown, MD, FAACH, is a general internist at Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge, MA and associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. She teaches learners across the spectrum of medical education. Among her many accomplishments, Dr. Lown is the first medical director of the Schwartz Center for Compassionate Healthcare, a nonprofit organization dedicated to strengthening the relationship between patients and care providers and creating more compassionate healthcare systems.

In this podcast, Helen Osborne talks with Dr. Lown about: 

  • Compassion. How it builds upon, yet differs from, empathetic concern.
  • Examples of ways to bring compassion into health communication.
  • How listeners can learn more about using these skills in practice.

More Ways to Learn

To read a written transcript, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=12017

Consultations are Conversations: How Clinicians and Patients Can Help (HLOL #117)

MontoriPhotoVictor M. Montori, MD is Professor of Medicine at Mayo Clinic. He not only is a practicing endocrinologist, researcher, and author but also a recognized expert in evidence-based medicine and shared decision-making. Dr. Montori developed the concept of minimally disruptive medicine and works to advance person-centered care for patients with diabetes and other chronic conditions.

In this podcast, Helen Osborne talks w Dr. Victor Montori about:

  • Patient-centered care. How clinicians and patients both bring expertise to this conversation.
  • Strategies busy clinicians can use such as setting priorities and advocating for the patient’s agenda.
  • Strategies busy patients can use such as bringing in an “extra set of ears” and asking questions

More Ways to Learn

To read a written transcript, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=12008

Creating A Health Awareness Campaign (HLOL #116)

NeyalHeadshot-SmallerNeyal Ammary-Risch MPH, MCHES, is the Director of the National Eye Health Education Program and Health Literacy Coordinator at the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Her work includes overseeing programs that raise awareness about early detection and treatment of eye disease and the promotion of vision rehabilitation.

In this podcast Neyal Ammary-Risch talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • How campaigns can help raise awareness about big health topics.
  • Examples of helpful awareness-raising strategies. These include using multiple communication formats, training trusted sources (such as lay health educators), and creating community partnerships.
  • Ideas about ways to raise awareness about health literacy.

More Ways to Learn:

  • National Eye Institute, National Eye Health Education Program. With links to many useful resources including the Healthy Eyes Toolkit. At www.nei.nih.gov/NEHEP
  • Fertman CI, Allensworth DD, Health Promotion Programs: From Theory to Practice.Jossey-Bass (2010). Ammary-Risch wrote the chapter, “Communicating Health Information Effectively.”
  • Ammary-Risch N, In Mommy’s Garden: A Book to Help Explain Cancer to Young Children. Learn more and order online at http://books.canyonbeach.com/inmommysgarden

To read a written transcript, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=12005

Health Literacy & New Technology: An App Challenge (HLOL #115)

LierLanghansODPHPTo reach and teach people “where they are,” the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services challenged designers to create a “health literate app” for use on mobile devices (cell phones and tablets). This builds on health content from ODPHP’s consumer-oriented website about prevention, www.healthfinder.gov

This podcast is with the co-leader’s of ODPHP’s Mobile App Challenge:

  • Ellen Langhans (right, in the photo) is the healthfinder.gov Program Manager at ODPHP. Her role is to ensure the use of plain language and health literacy principles in healthfinder.gov along with its outreach and marketing materials.
  • Silje Lier is a Communication Advisor at ODPHP. She manages the outreach community for healthfinder.gov. She also supports outreach for many ODPHP initiatives including Healthy People 2020, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy.

In this podcast, Ellen Langhans and Silje Lier talk with Helen Osborne about:

  • How people use mobile devices to access health information.
  • What ODPHP’s Mobile App Challenge was and how it led to the development of an app that is creative, functional, and consistent with health literacy principles.
  • Good app features to include action-oriented content, longevity (capacity for the app to grow and change), and functions that keep users engaged.

More Ways to Learn:

Click link to read a written transcript, http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=12001

IOM’s Health Literacy Roundtable (HLOL #114)

lhernandez150pctscaleLyla Hernandez has been a Senior Program Officer at the Institute of Medicine (IOM) for many years. She served as the study director for projects that include public health, health indicators, genomics, complementary and alternative medicine, and Gulf War veterans’ health. Now, Hernandez is the Staff Director of IOM’s Health Literacy Roundtable.

In this podcast, Lyla Hernandez talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • IOM’s Health Literacy Roundtable: What it is, who’s involved, and how it works.
  • Examples of how IOM’s Health Literacy Roundtable is helping to create a more health literate environment for individuals and organizations.
  • Free learning tools and resources from IOM’s Health Literacy Roundtable. These include workshops, discussion papers, and webcasts.

More Ways to Learn:

To read a transcript of this podcast, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11899

Presenting Data in Ways that Work for Most People, Most of the Time (HLOL #113)

Pictures of Sally 2013Sally Bigwood lives in the United Kingdom and has worked in a number of fields including publishing, sales, government, and the UK’s National Health Service. These fields all need to communicate data in ways that everyday folks can understand. To help, Sally Bigwood along with her sister Melissa Spore, founded Plain Figures and co-authored the book, A Designers Guide to Presenting Numbers, Figures, and Charts.

In this podcast, Sally Bigwood talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • Presenting data as simply and clearly as possible.
  • Putting figures into a logical order.
  • Keeping comparisons close.
  • Rounding figures so they are easier to understand, compare, and recall.

More Ways to Learn:

  • Plain Figures. At http://www.plainfigures.com
  • Bigwood S, Spore M, The Designer’s Guide to Presenting Numbers, Figures, and Charts. The Allworth Press (2013).
  • Freeman JV, Walters SJ, Campbell MJ, How to Display Data. BMJ Books (2008).
  • “When Communicating Risk, Consider What Patients Need and Want to Know (HLOL #102).” Health Literacy Out Loud podcast interview with Dr. Brian Zikmund-Fisher. At http://www.healthliteracy.com/hlol-risk
  • “Clearly Communicating Scientific Information (HLOL #83).” Health Literacy Out Loud podcast interview with Dr. David Nelson. Athttp://healthliteracy.com/hlol-scientific-information

To read a transcript of this podcast, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11877

Using Body and Voice to Communicate About Health (HLOL #112)

TM-close-hi-resTom Mucciolo is President of MediaNet, Inc., a presentation skills company based in New York City. For many years, Tom has been helping leaders effectively communicate their messages using scripting, visual design, and delivery skills. He also is on the faculty at New York University. Tom writes extensively about teaching and presentation effectiveness and is co-author of the book, A Guide to Better Teaching.

In this podcast, Tom Mucciolo talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • Conversation versus presentation: Why talking about health is more than just words.
  • Making the most of body language with proximity, openness, and invitation.
  • Using tone of voice to establish presence and avoid distractions.

More Ways to Learn:

  • MediaNet: A Presentation Skills Company. At http://www.medianet-ny.com
  • Visually Speaking blog. At http://medianet-ny.com/wordpress/
  • Jahangiri L, Mucciolo T (2012), A Guide to Better Teaching: Skills, Advice, and Evaluation for College and University Professors. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

To read a written transcript, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11862

Dentists and Patients: How to Communicate Clearly (HLOL #111)

Leila-Jahangiri-profile-image 2013Dr. Leila Jahangiri is a dentist, clinical professor and department chair in Prosthodontics at New York University College of Dentistry. NYU is the largest dental school in the United States and Dr. Jahangiri has vast experience in teaching and patient care. She focuses a considerable amount of time researching effective communications and is co-author of the book, A Guide to Better Teaching.

In this podcast, Dr. Jahangiri talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • How good communication starts even before the patient sits in a dental chair.
  • Ways to help reduce a patient’s anxiety and fear of pain or the unknown.
  • Strategies that dentists, medical professionals, and patients can use to improve communication.

More Ways to Learn:

  • Jahangiri L, Mucciolo T (2012), A Guide to Better Teaching: Skills, Advice, and Evaluation for College and University Professors. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
  • ADA (American Dental Association). With resources for professionals and the public. At http://www.ada.org.

To read a transcript of this podcast, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11856

Comics and Medicine: That’s Health Literacy, Too. (HLOL #110)

MKMK Czerwiec is a nurse who makes comics. MK has a Masters degree in medical humanities from Northwestern University, where she developed and teaches a seminar to medical students called “Drawing Medicine.” With Ian Williams, a doctor in the UK who also makes comics, MK co-runs GraphicMedicine.org, a website that looks at the intersection between comics and the discourse of medicine.

In this podcast, MK Czerwiec talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • How comics use sequential art to tell about health, illness, and medicine.
  • Why comics are effective and how they transcend differences in culture, language, and educational level.
  • What listeners can do to find, create, use, and learn more about comics in medicine.

Ways to Learn More:

To read a transcript of this podcast, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11843

PEMAT: Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (HLOL #109)

cindybrachCindy Brach is the lead for health literacy and cultural competence at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Brach helped create several very important health literacy tools and resources including AHRQ’s Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit and the Institute of Medicine’s discussion paper, “Ten Attributes of a Health Literate Health Care Organization.” Now, she is one of three authors of PEMAT: Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool.

In this podcast, Cindy Brach talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • How PEMAT differs from other patient education material assessment tools.
  • Using PEMAT to assess usability and actionability of print and audio-visual materials.
  • Putting PEMAT into practice. Including how to score items and then use these scores to compare patient education materials.

More Ways to Learn:

To read a transcript of this podcast, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11799

CDC’s “Clear Communication Index” (HLOL #108)

Baur photo April 2013Cynthia Baur, PhD, works at the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and leads CDC’s health literacy and plain language initiatives. Among her many accomplishments, Dr. Baur is lead editor of the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy and with Dr. Christine Prue, also of the CDC, co-developed CDC’s Clear Communication Index.

In this podcast, Cynthia Baur talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • What CDC’s Clear Communication Index is, why it’s needed, and how it compares to other communication assessment tools.
  • How to use the Index when revisiting, revising, or creating a wide range of public communication products. These include print materials, web postings, audio scripts, and social media messages.

More Ways to Learn:

To read a transcript of this podcast, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11786

 

 

 

Health Literacy and Pediatrics (HLOL #107)

Cronan_ Kate DSC6430Kate Cronan MD is a Pediatric Emergency Medicine physician, Associate Professor of Pediatrics at Jefferson Medical College, Director of Health Content Integration for the Nemours Children’s Health Media Center, and Senior Editor for KidsHealth.org. She is also an active and enthusiastic health literacy champion who co-chairs the Language Proficiency and Health Literacy Committee at Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children in Wilmington, Delaware.

In this podcast, Dr. Kate Cronan talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • Health literacy issues to consider when communicating with children, along with their parents or caregivers.
  • Strategies to help set a positive tone, put children at ease, and communicate medical information in ways they can understand.
  • Choosing words, using pictures, and otherwise being clear when teaching children about health and illness.

More Ways to Learn:

  • KidsHealth from Nemours. Communicating complex medical information in ways that parents, kids, and teens can understand. At http://kidshealth.org
  • Abrams MA, Dreyer BP, (2009) Plain Language Pediatrics: Health Literacy Strategies and Communication Resources for Common Pediatric Topics. Available as an eBook from AAP, at http://ebooks.aap.org/product/plain-language-pediatrics

To read a written transcript, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11763

WikiProject Medicine: What It is, Why It Matters, How Health Literacy Advocates Can Help (HLOL #106)

photoJames Heilman MD, CCFP-EM is an Emergency Room physician in Canada. He also has faculty appointments at the University of Saskatchewan and the University of British Columbia. Beyond these more traditional medical roles, Dr. Heilman describes himself as a “Wikipedian,” serving as a volunteer editor of Wiki Project Medicine since 2008.

In this podcast, Dr. James Heilman talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • WikiProject Medicine, the most used medical resource in the world.
  • Credibility, accuracy, and other common concerns about this resource.
  • You too can be a Wikipedian. And help communicate complicated ideas in clear and simple ways.

More Ways to Learn:

To read a transcript of this podcast, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11752

Creating a Sustainable Health Literacy Business Model (HLOL #105)

MegMeg Poag is the Executive Director of the Literacy Coalition of Central Texas. With training as a social worker and experience in health and human services, Meg has worked in the areas of housing, substance abuse, mental health, and literacy. Now Meg focuses on the design and delivery of specialized health literacy interventions.

In this podcast, Meg Poag talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • Challenges in getting adequate funding for adult literacy programs, and health literacy programs.
  • The importance of creating a business plan. Why it’s needed, what’s included, and an example of how a business plan can help.
  • Creating a package of health literacy assessments, interventions, and services that hospitals actually will pay for.

More ways to learn:

To read a transcript of this podcast, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11739

Choosing Wisely: A Campaign Helping Patients Be Engaged Consumers (HLOL #104)

Rothschild HeadshotBeccah Rothschild, MPA, is the Senior Outreach Leader for the Choosing Wisely campaign at Consumer Reports. Beccah has over 15 years experience in the fields of adult literacy, health literacy, health communication, and outreach including direct service interventions, research, and policy. Her role at Consumer Reports focuses on patient engagement around the issues of overuse and misuse of medical tests, treatments, and procedures that provide little benefit and in some cases cause harm.

In this podcast, Beccah Rothschild talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • Choosing Wisely. How this campaign helps patients, consumers, and providers engage in important conversations about medical tests, treatments, and procedures.
  • Consumer-friendly teaching materials from Choosing Wisely. These materials not only are free and easy-to-read but also approved by national medical societies and organizations.
  • Health literacy, and its important role in the Choosing Wisely campaign.

More Ways to Learn:

To read a transcript of this podcast, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11713

Health Literacy and Hearing Loss (HLOL #103)

Bonnie, Ranger, and Mickey at a conferenceBonnie Bartos PA-C, MHP, CDE is a Physician Assistant and Certified Diabetes Educator in the Mayo Clinic Health System. Her clinical focus is primary care, diabetes, and anticoagulation care. Bartos is a long-time health literacy advocate who uses pictograms as well as many other formats to teach patients who are visual learners, those who have poor literacy skills, use English as a second language, or have disabilities. Bartos knows the challenges of health education as she herself has a severe-to-profound hearing loss.

In this podcast, Bonnie Bartos talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • The spectrum of hearing loss, including how hearing loss can affect speech.
  • Strategies to communicate clearly with people who have hearing loss.
  • Types of technology designed to help people with hearing loss.
  • Bartos’s story about how she lost hearing. And ways her service dogs help.

More Ways to Learn:

  • Osborne H (host), Cushman C (guest). “Health Education for Children with Disabilities (HLOL #89),” January 8, 2013. Podcast at http://healthliteracy.com/hlol-children-disabilities. Transcript at http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11492
  • Osborne H, Health Literacy from A to Z: Practical Ways to Communicate Your Health Message, Second Edition published by Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2011. One chapter is “Know Your Audience: Hearing Loss.” Available at http://www.jblearning.com/catalog/9781449600532/ and most online bookstores.
  • Osborne H, “Communicating About Health with ASL.” First published in On Call magazine, June 2003. Now available at http://healthliteracy.com/hlol-asl
  • Health Education in American Sign Language at http://www.deafmd.org
  • Communication Services for the Deaf (CSD) at http://www.c-s-d.org
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) at http://www.asha.org
  • Search the internet or your state’s information for advocacy groups or organizations and services for deafness and hearing loss.

To read a transcript of this podcast, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11710

When Communicating Risk, Consider What Patients Need and Want to Know (HLOL #102)

BZF Donaghue headshotBrian J. Zikmund-Fisher, PhD is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Behavior and Health Education at University of Michigan’s School of Public Health. He also is a Research Assistant Professor in their Internal Medicine Department and affiliated with several other University of Michigan’s programs. With a background in decision psychology and behavioral economics, Dr. Zikmund-Fisher teaches, researches, and writes about meaningful ways to communicate risk and other number-based health messages.

In this podcast, Dr. Zikmund-Fisher talks with Helen Osborne about:

  • How all risk communications are not the same.
  • The responsibility of the communicator to consider the spectrum of patient’s needs before deciding what to provide.
  • How to align the format of risk information to its purpose. In other words, how to know when we want numbers and when we might not.
  • The pros and cons of different formats for discussing risk including icon arrays and other visual ways of showing probabilities, labels that group numbers into categories, and narratives that recount lived experience but ignore probability.
  • Thoughts about the history and future of risk communication.

More Ways to Learn:

  • Zikmund-Fisher BJ, “The Right Tool is What They Need, Not What We Have: A Taxonomy of Appropriate Levels of Precision in Patient Risk Communication,” Medical Care Research and Review. Published online September 6, 2012. Full text available at http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/98434
  • Icon Array, a free online tool to communicate your risk information in a matrix, http://www.iconarray.com

To read a transcript, go to http://healthliteracy.com/transcript.asp?PageID=11711